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AP Seminar: Glossary

Alignment — Cohesion between the focus of an inquiry, the method of collecting information, the process of analysis of the information, and the conclusions made to increase understanding of that focus
Argument — A claim or thesis that conveys a perspective developed through a line of reasoning and supported by evidence assumption — A belief regarded as true and often unstated
Author — One who creates a work (e.g., article; research study; foundational, literary, or philosophical text; speech, broadcast, or personal account; artistic work or performance) that conveys a perspective and can be examined
Bias — A personal opinion, belief, or value that may influence one’s judgment, perspective, or claim
Claim — A statement made about an issue that asserts a perspective
Commentary — Discussion and analysis of evidence in relation to the claim which may identify patterns, describe trends, and/or explain relationships complex
Issue — Issue involving many facets or perspectives that must be understood in order to address it
Concession — Acknowledgment and acceptance of an opposing or different view
Conclusion — Understanding resulting from analysis of evidence
Context — The intent, audience, purpose, bias, situatedness, and/or background (larger environment) of a source or reference
Conventions — The stylistic features of writing (e.g., grammar, usage, mechanics)
Counterargument — An opposing perspective, idea, or theory supported by evidence
Credibility — The degree to which a source is believable and trustworthy
Cross-curricular — Goes beyond the traditional boundary of a single content area or discipline
Deductive — A type of reasoning that constructs general propositions that are supported with evidence or cases
Evidence — Information (e.g., data, quotations, excerpts from texts) used as proof to support a claim or thesis
Fallacy — Evidence or reasoning that is false or in error
Implication — A possible future effect or result
Inductive — A type of reasoning that presents cases or evidence that lead to a logical conclusion
Inquiry — A process for seeking truth, information, or knowledge through a study, research investigation, or artistic endeavor/work
Interdisciplinary — Involving two or more areas of knowledge
Issue — Important problem for debate or discussion
Lens — Filter through which an issue or topic is considered or examined
Limitation — A boundary or point at which an argument or generalization is no longer valid
Line of reasoning — Arrangement of claims and evidence that leads to a conclusion


Literature — The foundational and current texts of a field or discipline of study
Perspective — A point of view conveyed through an argument
Plagiarism — Failure to acknowledge, attribute, and/or cite any ideas or evidence taken from another source
Point of view — A position or standpoint on a topic or issue
Primary source — An original source of information about a topic (e.g., study, artifact, data set, interview, article)
Qualification — A condition or exception
Qualitative — Having to do with text, narrative, or descriptions
Quantitative — Having to do with numbers, amounts, or quantities
Rebuttal — Contradicting an opposing perspective by providing alternate, more convincing evidence
Refutation — Disproving an opposing perspective by providing counterclaims or counterevidence
Reliability — The extent to which something can be trusted to be accurate
Resolution — The act of solving a problem or dispute
Scaffolding — The provision of temporary structured support for students to aid skill development
Secondary source — A commentary about one or more primary sources that provides additional insight, opinions, and/or interpretation about the primary source data, study, or artifacts
Sequencing — The organization of curriculum content into an order which progresses from simple to more complex solution — A means of answering a question or addressing a problem or issue
Text — Something composed (e.g., articles; research studies; foundational, literary, and philosophical texts; speeches, broadcasts, and personal accounts; artistic works and performances) that conveys a perspective and can be examined
Thesis — A claim or position on an issue or topic put forward and supported by evidence
Tone — The way in which an author expresses an attitude about his or her topic or subject through rhetorical choices
Validity — The extent to which an argument or claim is logical vocal variety — Changing vocal characteristics (e.g., pitch, volume, speed) in order to emphasize ideas, convey emotion or opinion, or achieve other specific purposes
The SJND Miller Library's mission is to provide you with diverse resources to meet your information needs and curiosities; empower you to take initiative in furthering the depth and breadth of your education; teach you how to locate, access, evaluate, use, and properly cite information sources; and help you become a compassionate, discerning, and self-directed lifelong learner.