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AP Research: Glossary

Alignment — Cohesion between the focus of an inquiry, the method of collecting information, the process of analysis of the information, and the conclusions made to increase understanding of that focus
Argument — A claim or thesis that conveys a perspective developed through a line of reasoning and supported by evidence
Assumption — A belief regarded as true and often unstated
Author — One who creates a work (e.g., article; research study; foundational, literary, or philosophical text; speech, broadcast, or personal account; artistic work or performance) that conveys a perspective and can be examined
Bias — A personal opinion, belief, or value that may influence one’s judgment, perspective, or claim
Claim — A statement made about an issue that asserts a perspective
Coding — A method for reducing data sets into categories or numbers for the purpose of analyzing emerging themes, patterns, or trends
Commentary — Discussion and analysis of evidence in relation to the claim that may identify patterns, describe trends, and/or explain relationships
Complex issue — Issue involving many facets or perspectives that must be understood in order to address it concession — Acknowledgment and acceptance of an opposing or different view
Conclusion — Understanding resulting from analysis of evidence
Context — The intent, audience, purpose, bias, situatedness, and/or background (larger environment) of a source or reference
Conventions — The stylistic features of writing (e.g., grammar, usage, mechanics) counterargument — An opposing perspective, idea, or theory supported by evidence
Credibility — The degree to which a source is believable and trustworthy
Cross-curricular — Goes beyond the traditional boundary of a single content area or discipline
Deductive — A type of reasoning that constructs general propositions that are supported with evidence or cases
Evidence — Information (e.g., data, quotations, excerpts from texts) used as proof to support a claim or thesis
Fallacy — Evidence or reasoning that is false or in error
Feasible — Able to be accomplished within the time, resources, and processes available
Implication — A possible future effect or result
Inductive — A type of reasoning that presents cases or evidence that lead to a logical conclusion
Inquiry — A process for seeking truth, information, or knowledge through a study, research investigation, or artistic endeavor/work
Interdisciplinary — Involving two or more areas of knowledge
Lens — Filter through which an issue or topic is considered or examined
Limitation — A boundary or point at which an argument or generalization is no longer valid
Line of reasoning — Arrangement of claims and evidence that leads to a conclusion
Literature — The foundational and current texts of a field or discipline of study
Material culture — Physical objects, resources, and spaces that people use to define their culture
Perspective — A point of view conveyed through an argument
Plagiarism — Failure to acknowledge, attribute, and/or cite any ideas or evidence taken from another source
Point of view — A position or standpoint on a topic or issue
Primary research — The planning and implementation of an inquiry to gather firsthand data or information pertaining to a topic of interest
Primary source — An original source of information about a topic (e.g., study, artifact, data set, interview, article)
Qualification — A condition or exception
Qualitative — Having to do with text, narrative, or descriptions
Quantitative — Having to do with numbers, amounts, or quantities
Rebuttal — Contradicting an opposing perspective by providing alternate, more convincing evidence
Refutation — Disproving an opposing perspective by providing counterclaims or counterevidence
Reliability — The extent to which something can be trusted to be accurate
Resolution — The act of solving a problem or dispute
Secondary research — The process of gathering data or information about a topic of interest from previously published sources
Secondary source — A commentary about one or more primary sources that provides additional insight, opinions, and/or interpretation about the primary source data, study, or artifacts
Solution — A means of answering a question or addressing a problem or issue
Text — Something composed (e.g., articles; research studies; foundational, literary, and philosophical texts; speeches, broadcasts, and personal accounts; artistic works and performances) that conveys a perspective and can be examined
Thesis — A claim or position on an issue or topic put forward and supported by evidence
Tone — The way in which an author expresses an attitude about his or her topic or subject through rhetorical choices
Triangulation — Implementing more than one research method and/or gathering more than one type of data set to strengthen the depth of understanding and validity of the findings pertaining to a phenomenon or observation
Validity (argument) — The extent to which an argument or claim is logical
Validity (research) — The extent to which conclusions of an inquiry accurately address the variables to be measured or align with the authenticity of the observations made
Vocal variety — Changing vocal characteristics (e.g., pitch, volume, speed) in order to emphasize ideas, convey emotion or opinion, or achieve other specific purposes
Workshopping — Presenting scholarly works to peers for feedback to inform or guide revisions
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